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Consumer

Understanding Consumer Behavior With the Help of Analytics

A loyal customer base is what every business hopes to achieve through its efforts. But attaining this objective is not as easy as one would think. With so many competitors in the market, it is difficult for businesses to etch a mark for themselves in the minds of their target audience. Consumer behavior is pretty Read More

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Marketing Decisions

Using Analytics to Make Smarter Marketing Decisions

Big Data Analytics has revolutionized the way businesses make decisions and operate. With access to extensive information, marketers now base their strategies on the data that has proven to be game-changing for all industries. Marketers are now able to understand customers like never before and can make sure that all their efforts are focused on Read More

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Social Media Strategies

Social Media Strategies You Should Not Ignore

The way you plan your social media presence is vital to the success of your overall digital marketing strategy. With so many platforms available today, businesses need to make sure that they are competing effectively with each other. To be able to do this, organizations are required to fully understand their audience and market their Read More

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7 Crucial Metrics For Startup Companies

7 Crucial Metrics For Startup Companies

Metrics are the numbers that matter for your business. When it comes to marketing, they are everything because they help you optimize your budget, find your most valuable customers, determine which ads are working the best and so much more.The top digital marketing agencies for startups understand the importance of applying marketing strategies based on Read More

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Digital Marketing For Startups

The world of digital marketing is booming like never before. Now is the time to get your business on track for building more sales and boosting your client base. A traditional marketing company may not be the exact thing that you’re looking for, so it could be time to invest in a company that can Read More

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Website Promotion

Capitalize On Emerging Technologies In Marketing By Working With A Website Promotion Agency For Startups

Working with a website promotion agency for startups allows budding businesses to capitalize on emerging technologies in order to drastically improve their market reach right out of the gate. With the advent of so many modern day marketing tools, market exposure is far more efficient and all encompassing, making it important to remain on top Read More

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Analytics

Leading Digital Marketing Agency for Startups Explains Advanced Analytics

Advanced analytics is the latest iteration of marketing techniques designed to help drive changes and improvements in business practices. While valuable to all aspects of a business, advanced analytics is particularly helpful to the marketing effort, specifically in optimizing the communication and relationship with individual customers. The principal difference between advanced analytics and traditional business Read More

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NYC Digital Marketing Agency

Benefits of Hiring an Analytics Driven NYC Digital Marketing Agency

Analytics based marketing is effective because it is based on real data rather than speculation. An NYC Digital Marketing Agency that focuses primarily on analytics driven marketing techniques is far more likely to be successful with its campaigns as opposed to experimentation or speculation. There are a variety of analytical tools currently available for most Read More

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Final Step Marketing Helps You Properly Allocate

Final Step Marketing Helps You Properly Allocate Your Marketing Budget

All too often, companies burn a large percentage of their marketing budget on preparation rather than the real work that leads to higher revenue. Final Step Marketing is a leading digital marketing agency in New York that will ensure this never happens for your business. With a focus on the work that produces the highest Read More

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crowdfunding marketing agency

How Final Step Marketing Helps You Raise Funds for Your Business Through Crowdfunding

One of the most significant hurdles for startups and even established businesses to overcome is financing. Many startups are unable to get the amount they need from a bank loan or other financing methods. In these and other circumstances, hiring a crowdfunding marketing agency can be an ideal solution. It’s also a good financing option Read More

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Benefits of Hiring an Analytics Driven NYC Digital Marketing Agency

Analytics based marketing is effective because it is based on real data rather than speculation. NYC digital marketing agency that primarily focus on analytics driven marketing techniques are far more likely to be successful with their campaigns as opposed to experimentation or speculation. With the variety of analytical tools that are currently available for most online Read More

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finalstepmarketing

Why is Content Marketing Important for Your Business?

There’s no doubt that well planned and high quality digital marketing is fundamental to the success of virtually every business out there. However, company owners and managers often focus on the marketing strategies and techniques that they are the most familiar with rather than experimenting with other strategies that offer great potential but take time Read More

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finalstepmarketing

How a Website Promotion Agency Can Help Ensure the Success of Your Startup

It is always well worth the investment to hire a website promotion agency that specializes in helping startups get off the ground if you’re able to do so. In a competitive environment, the quality of a startup’s website marketing can certainly make or break it. A professional website promotion agency for startups can ensure consistent, high Read More

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finalstepmarketing

4 Common Direct Marketing Mistakes

Direct marketing is certainly not new, but it remains one of the most reliable forms of reaching your potential customers. It is a potential goldmine for companies that have yet to implement it. Studies have found that 77% of people who receive direct mail are likely to sort through it no matter what it is, Read More

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finalstepmarketing

3Types of Business Consulting Services You May Need Today

Justifying the cost to hire a business consulting company in New York can be challenging for some business owners. However, a good business consulting companyis worth its weight in gold and can help you at any stage of your venture, whether you’re working out a business plan, analyzing your financials, seeking investors, or ready to Read More

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finalstepmarketing

Final Step Marketing is a Business Consulting Company in New York Offering Innovative Digital Marketing

Final Step Marketing has gained a reputation for being an innovative business consulting company in New York by offering unique digital marketing and consulting services such as pay for results SEO, results driven crowdfunding marketing, content and social media marketing, effective PPC viagrasansordonnancefr.com management, email marketing and many other essential marketing services. Final Step Marketing Read More

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finalstepmarketing

When is The Right Time to Call a Digital Marketing Agency for Startups?

Startups need an effective marketing plan to help guarantee the greatest chance of success. There are plenty of reasons why a digital marketing agency for startups might be hired at some point prior, during or after a startup launch. What’s the best time to hire one? Most startup companies will eventually hire a digital marketing Read More

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finalstepmarketing

Is it a Good Idea to Hire a Crowdfunding Marketing Agency?

If you’re on the fence about hiring a crowdfunding marketing agency, it is a good idea to plan out the reasons why you might want to hire one and justify the cost. Working with an agency like Final Step Marketing can make a lot of sense if you don’t have much time to spend on Read More

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finalstepmarketing

Finding The Right Branding Agency in NYC

Both new and established companies need a well-defined brand and a strong branding strategy. It’s essential for both types of companies to hire a branding agency in NYC at some point. It doesn’t mean that a company has to hire an agency that specializes in branding. For example, Final Step Marketing is a marketing agency Read More

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finalstepmarketing

Finding the Best SEO Company in NYC for Your Business

There are several great SEO agency options available when you’re searching for one in the New York City area. But trying to find the best SEO company in NYC can be a bit of challenge, as each agency specializes in different areas of SEO. Final Step Marketing is one of the few SEO and marketing Read More

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finalstepmarketing

The Benefits of Hiring a Crowdfunding Marketing Agency

The reality of crowdfunding is that it is far from easy – even for those who are experienced with it. If you’re in the process of planning out a crowdfunding campaign for your new product, service, non-profit or any other reason, it can make a lot of sense to hire a crowdfunding marketing agency to Read More

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Should Startups Work with a Digital Marketing Agency?

Any business has to justify every expense, but it’s particularly important for startups to be sure that they are very wisely spending their budget, as it can literally make or break their chances of success. Hiring a digital marketing agency for startups can be a wise decision, as it can save precious time on key Read More

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Does it Pay to Hire a Branding Agency in NYC?

Hiring abranding agency in NYC can end up being the difference between succeeding at a new venture or failing; that’s how crucial branding is to any new or established business. Branding helps a company get noticed and establishes a unique presence and reputation that clearly sets a company apart from its competitors. By working with Read More

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4 Tips for Hiring the Right SEO Company in NYC

Whenever you need search engine optimization for your business, you’ll always want to do your research and work with thebest SEO company in NYCthat your money can buy. Keep in mind that the term “best” is very subjective when it comes to SEO, and really depends on what matters the most to you and your Read More

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4 Reasons Why You Need a Digital Marketing Agency in New York

When you’ve reached a plateau with your marketing, when you’ve run out of ideas, or when your own marketing campaigns start to fall off a bit, an experienced digital marketing agency in New Yorkcan help you get back on track and come up with fresh new marketing ideas for your business. It’s beneficial to work Read More

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Why It Pays to Hire a Mobile App Marketing Company

In the last several years, mobile marketing has continued to dominate as the leading trend in marketing. In fact, it has all but entirely conquered desktop Internet use. For some small businesses, the idea of marketing through mobile apps may be daunting. But it is important for all companies to target their preferred customer market Read More

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Reasons to Outsource Your Digital Marketing

When it comes to your business, it’s pretty likely that digital marketing isn’t your main focus. So when you hire employees, you’re most likely going to hire people who do what your business does; this leads to a need for outsourcing non-essential positions. Digital marketing, for example, tends to require time, effort, and a particular Read More

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Questions to Ask Before Hiring a SEO Company

Utilizing SEO in the digital marketing of your business is an effective marketing technique. When it comes to looking for help in this, searching for the best SEO company in NYC can seem like a daunting task. Here, we have provided some important questions you will want to ask SEO candidates you are thinking of Read More

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Marketing Ideas for Startups

Everyone knows that the most important thing a business needs is a client base, and the pressure to efficiently gain and maintain a solid clientele can sometimes be overwhelming to a new business. Effective marketing is one of the most important factors, and it has the potential to make or break the startup. This is Read More

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A Few of the Laws of Social Media Marketing

Using a social media marketing company in NYC and harnessing the power of captivating content can have major positive impact on your business and the way you connect with your customers. Engaging in social media allows your business to reach out to a much larger potential client base. By following a few simple laws of Read More

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When is the Right Time to Hire a Business Consulting Company in New York

Business owners often pride themselves on being skilled at juggling multiple tasks and may notthink about hiring a business consulting company in New York. However, managingmultiple areas can often become overwhelming, especially as a business is starting to grow. No matter what stage you are at with your business, hiring a consulting company can be Read More

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What is the Best SEO Company for Your Business?

When you’re looking for the best SEO company in NYC it can be challenging to sort through the many options that you’ll find with a quick Google search. Youmight choose an SEO company located in New York City because of the fact that some of the top SEO agencies in the world are located here. Read More

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Thinking About Hiring a Crowdfunding Marketing Agency?

Hiring a crowdfunding marketing agency can have a significant impact on the success of your next crowdfunding campaign. It’s essential to performseveral preliminary marketing steps prior to the launch of your next campaign, and if any of those steps are neglected it can easily result in disappointing results. By choosing to work with an experienced Read More

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Choosing the Right Branding Agency for Your Business

Whether you’re in the process of establishing a new brand or rebranding your business, it’s helpful to hire a branding agency in NYC to assist you with the process. A professional branding agency will utilize their experience and knowledge to create an effective branding strategy for your unique business to ensure that your marketing is Read More

0 comments

5 Benefits of Hiring a Direct Marketing Agency in NYC

Creating and implementing effective, well-planned and targeted direct marketing campaigns is unquestionably one of the most effective ways to drive leads and sales to your business quickly, whether it is through your in-house experts or an agency. A direct marketing agency in NYC can assist you with creating and executing your next big campaign regardless Read More

0 comments

Why It Pays to Hire a Mobile App Marketing Company

In the last several years, mobile marketing has continued to dominate as the leading trend in marketing. In fact, it has all but entirely conquered desktop Internet use. For some small businesses, the idea of marketing through mobile apps may be daunting. But it is important for all companies to target their preferred customer market Read More

0 comments

Reasons to Outsource Your Digital Marketing

When it comes to your business, it’s pretty likely that digital marketing isn’t your main focus. So when you hire employees, you’re most likely going to hire people who do what your business does; this leads to a need for outsourcing non-essential positions. Digital marketing, for example, tends to require time, effort, and a particular Read More

0 comments

Questions to Ask Before Hiring a SEO Company

Utilizing SEO in the digital marketing of your business is an effective marketing technique. When it comes to looking for help in this, searching for the best SEO company in NYC can seem like a daunting task. Here, we have provided some important questions you will want to ask SEO candidates you are thinking of Read More

0 comments

Marketing Ideas for Startups

Everyone knows that the most important thing a business needs is a client base, and the pressure to efficiently gain and maintain a solid clientele can sometimes be overwhelming to a new business. Effective marketing is one of the most important factors, and it has the potential to make or break the startup. This is Read More

0 comments

A Few of the Laws of Social Media Marketing

Using a social media marketing company in NYC and harnessing the power of captivating content can have major positive impact on your business and the way you connect with your customers. Engaging in social media allows your business to reach out to a much larger potential client base. By following a few simple laws of Read More

0 comments

Why Should You Hire a Business Consulting Company in New York?

Business owners often pride themselves on being skilled at juggling multiple tasks and may notthink about hiring a business consulting company in New York. However, managingmultiple areas can often become overwhelming, especially as a business is starting to grow. No matter what stage you are at with your business, hiring a consulting company can be Read More

0 comments

What is the Best SEO Company for Your Business?

When you’re looking for the best SEO company in NYC it can be challenging to sort through the many options that you’ll find with a quick Google search. Youmight choose an SEO company located in New York City because of the fact that some of the top SEO agencies in the world are located here. Read More

0 comments

Thinking About Hiring a Crowdfunding Marketing Agency?

Hiring a crowdfunding marketing agency can have a significant impact on the success of your next crowdfunding campaign. It’s essential to performseveral preliminary marketing steps prior to the launch of your next campaign, and if any of those steps are neglected it can easily result in disappointing results. By choosing to work with an experienced Read More

0 comments

Choosing the Right Branding Agency for Your Business

Whether you’re in the process of establishing a new brand or rebranding your business, it’s helpful to hire a branding agency in NYC to assist you with the process. A professional branding agency will utilize their experience and knowledge to create an effective branding strategy for your unique business to ensure that your marketing is Read More

0 comments

5 Benefits of Hiring a Direct Marketing Agency in NYC

Creating and implementing effective, well-planned and targeted direct marketing campaigns is unquestionably one of the most effective ways to drive leads and sales to your business quickly, whether it is through your in-house experts or an agency. A direct marketing agency in NYC can assist you with creating and executing your next big campaign regardless Read More

0 comments

FinalStepMarketing invading the Disrupt conference in San Francisco!

FinalStepMarketing will be invading the largest start-up conference this September and helping it’s clients introduce their revolutionary products to the world. Look out for us September 21st through 23rd at Disrupt San Francisco! In light of our much anticipated attendance we will be running several contests. First for our valued fans! The sticker with our Read More

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Pay for Results Only SEO

SEO is hands down the most effective digital marketing method today. The challenge with SEO is that it takes time to move up the search rankings and results are never a guarantee, since it is Google and Bing’s secret algorithms that ultimately determine your fate. For this reason even the top SEO agencies refuse to Read More

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Research and analysis lead to perfect design!

Building a nice looking website has never been easier. Numerous companies now offer well designed templates that can be quickly and easily populated with content, photos, and products. One familiar concept separates these websites from ones that are able to attract customers and have high conversion. That concept is “one size does not fit all”.  Read More

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finalstepmarketing

10 Facebook Marketing Mistakes to Avoid

The Facebook Marketing Series is presented by Webtrends, helping brands acquire, engage, nurture and optimize Facebook fans. Get the Social Media Marketing Playbook, a guide for maximizing returns. Download now. At this point, most people know to market their business onFacebook — there are more than 900 million people on the social platform, constantly “liking,” sharing, commenting and posting. We’ve gone over Read More

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finalstepmarketing

Entrepreneurship Is The New Women’s Movement

Women are leaving the workforce in droves in favor of being at home. Not to be a homemaker, but as job-making entrepreneurs. By Natalie MacNeil A quiet revolution is taking shape right now among women. Unlike the Quiet Revolutionthat began in the 1970s which saw women leave the home and enter the workforce in droves, women Read More

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finalstepmarketing

9 Ways to Measure Your Brand’s Social Media Health

Thanks to the variety of social media marketing tools available today, there is a nearly endless stream of data available to marketers. That could make it tough to determine what metrics actually matter for your campaign or brand and why. Here are nine key performance indicators and explanations for why they might matter to your brand. 1. Read More

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finalstepmarketing

The Beginner’s Guide to Social Media

Whether it’s keeping up on the latest web memes on Reddit or Tumblr, following your favorite comedians onTwitter, profesionally networking on LinkedIn, or staying in touch with college friends on Facebook, social media has become an integrated and constant part of our everyday lives. To digital natives, it may be difficult to imagine a world where these tools aren’t at Read More

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finalstepmarketing

The 6 Types Of Social Media Users

At this point, no single customer engagement channel can deliver marketers a complete picture of consumer behavior. Google knows what you’re interested in, but not what you’ve done. Facebook knows who your friends are, but not what you buy. Pinterest knows what you share, but not how you act on it. Foursquare knows where you are, but Read More

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finalstepmarketing

Improve Engagement On All Of Your Social Networks Today!

FinalStepMarketing is now offering comprehensive social media management services. Social media is about much more than just having a lot of followers. We believe a few loyal followers are far more valuable than a 100 who do not engage with a brand. We focus on: • Accumulating quality followers • Developing user engagement • Improving Read More

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finalstepmarketing

Find Out Who Your Customers Are & What They Really Want!

One of the main reasons marketing campaigns fail is due to poor market segmentation. Knowing exactly who your customers are and what they need, seeing how they interact with your website, understanding your competitors business model, and being the first to recognize demand and opportunities for expansion in the market is key to conducting your Read More

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A

Above-the-line: In Marketing, relating to marketing expenditure on advertising in media such as press, radio, television, cinema, and the World Wide Web, on which a commission is usually paid to an agency.

Absorbed Account: An account that has lost its separate identity by being combined with related accounts in the preparation of a financial statement.

Absorbed Business: A company that has been merged into another company.

Absorbed costs: The indirect costs associated with manufacturing, for example, insurance or property taxes.

Absorption costing: An accounting practice in which fixed and variable costs of production are absorbed by different cost centers.

Abusive tax shelter: A tax shelter that somebody claims illegally to avoid or minimize tax

Accelerated cost recovery system: A system used in computing the depreciation of some assets acquired before 1986 in a way that reduces taxes.

Accelerated depreciation: A system used for computing the depreciation of some assets in a way that assumes that they depreciate faster in the early years of their acquisition.

Access bond: A type of mortgage that permits borrowers to take out loans against extra capital paid into the account, home-loan interest rates being lower than interest rates on other forms of credit.

Account: A record of a business transaction. A contract arrangement, written or unwritten, to purchase and take delivery with payment to be made later as arranged.

Accounting cost: the cost of maintaining and checking the business records of a person or organization and the preparation of forms and reports for financial purposes.

Accounting insolvency: A the condition that a company is in when its liabilities to its creditors exceeds its assets.

Account balance: The difference between the debit and the credit sides of an account.

Accountant: One who is skilled at keeping business records. Usually, a highly trained professional rather than one who keeps books. An accountant can set up the books needed for a business to operate and help the owner understand them.

Accounting period: A time interval at the end of which an analysis is made of the information contained in the bookkeeping records. Also the period of time covered by the profit and loss statement.

Accounts payable: Money which you owe to an individual or business for goods or services that have been received but not yet paid for.

Accounting rate of return: the ratio of profit before interest and taxation to the percentage of capital employed at the end of a period. Variations include using profit after interest and taxation, equity capital employed, and average capital for the period.

Accounts receivable: Money owed to your business for goods or services that have been delivered but not yet paid for.

Accounts receivable factoring: the buying of accounts receivable at a discount with the aim of making a profit from collecting them.

Accrual basis: A method of keeping accounts that shows expenses incurred and income earned for a given fiscal period, even though such expenses and income have not been actually paid or received in cash.

Actuary: A professional expert in pension and life insurance matters, particularly trained in mathematical, statistical, and accounting methods and procedures, and in insurance probabilities.

Administrative expense: Expenses chargeable to the managerial, general administrative and policy phases of a business in contrast to sales, manufacturing, or cost of goods expense.

Advertising: The practice of bringing to the public’s notice the good qualities of something in order to induce the public to buy or invest in it.

Agent: A person who is authorized to act for or represent another person in dealing with a third party.

Amortization: To liquidate on an installment basis; the process of gradually paying off a liability over a period of time.

Analysis: Breaking an idea or problem down into its parts; a thorough examination of the parts of anything.

Annual report: The yearly report made by a company at the close of the fiscal year, stating the company’s receipts and disbursements, assets and liabilities.

Appraisal: Evaluation of a specific piece of personal or real property. The value placed on the property evaluated.

Appreciation: The increase in the value of an asset in excess of its depreciable cost due to economic and other conditions, as distinguished from increases in value due to improvements or additions made to it.

Arrears: Amounts past due and unpaid.

Articles of Incorporation: A legal document filed with the state that sets forth the purposes and regulations for a corporation. Each state has different regulations.

Assets: Anything of worth that is owned. Accounts receivable are an asset.

Audiotaping: The act of recording onto an audiotape.

Audit: An examination of accounting documents and of supporting evidence for the purpose of reaching an informed opinion concerning their propriety.

B

Back-to-back loan: an arrangement in which two companies in different countries borrow offsetting amounts in each other’s currency and each repays it at a specified future date in its domestic currency. Such a loan, often between a company and its foreign subsidiary, eliminates the risk of loss from exchange rate fluctuations.

Back office: the administrative staff of a company who do not have face-to-face contact with the company’s customers.

Back pay: pay that is owed to an employee for work carried out before the current payment period and is either overdue or results from a backdated pay increase.

Backup: a period in which bond yields rise and prices fall, or a sudden reversal in a stock market trend.

Bad debts: Money owed to you that cannot be collected.

Balance: The amount of money remaining in an account.

Balanced budget: a budget in which planned expenditure on goods and services and debt income can be met by current income from taxation and other central government receipts.

Balanced investment strategy: a strategy of investing in a variety of types of companies and financial instruments to reduce the risk of loss through poor performance of any one type.

Balance of payments: a list of a country’s credit and debit transactions with international financial institutions and foreign countries in a specific period.

Balance of trade:the difference between a country’s exports and imports of goods and services.

Balance sheet: An itemized statement that lists the total assets and total liabilities of a given business to portray its net worth at a given moment in time.

Ballpark:an informal term for a rough, estimated figure. The term was derived from the approximate assessment of the number of spectators that might be made on the basis of a glance around at a sporting event.

Bank card: a plastic card issued by a bank and accepted by merchants in payment for transactions. The most common types are credit cards and debit cards, although smart cards have been introduced. Bank cards are governed by an internationally recognized set of rules for the authorization of their use and the clearing and settlement of transactions.

Banker’s draft: a bill of exchange payable on demand and drawn by one bank on another. Regarded as being equivalent to cash, the draft cannot be returned unpaid.

Bank guarantee: a commitment made by a bank to a foreign buyer that the bank will pay an exporter for goods shipped if the buyer defaults.

Bank statement: A monthly statement of account which a bank renders to each of its depositors.

Bankruptcy: the condition of being unable to pay debts, with liabilities greater than assets

Barren money: money that is unproductive because it is not invested.

Benchmarking: Rating your company’s products, services and practices against those of the front-runners in the industry.

Bill of entry: A statement of the nature and value of goods to be imported or exported, prepared by the shipper and presented to a customhouse.

Bill of lading: A statement of the nature and value of goods being transported, especially by ship, along with the conditions applying to their transportation. Drawn up by the carrier, this document serves as a contract between the owner of the goods and the carrier.

Bill of sale: Formal legal document that conveys title to or interest in specific property from the seller to the buyer.

Black market: an illegal market, usually for goods that are in short supply. Black market trading breaks government regulations or legislation and is particularly prevalent during times of shortage, such as rationing, or in industries that are very highly regulated, such as pharmaceuticals or armaments.

Board of directors: Those individuals selected to sit on an authoritative standing committee or governing body, taking responsibility for the management of an organization. Members of the board of directors are officially chosen by the shareholders, but in practice they are usually selected on the basis of the current board’s recommendations. The board usually includes major shareholders as well as directors of the company.

Board of Trustees: a committee or governing body that takes responsibility for managing, and holds in trust, funds, assets, or property belonging to others, for example, charitable or pension funds or assets.

Bookkeeping: The process of recording business transactions into the accounting records. The “books” are the documents in which the records of transactions are kept.

Bottom line: The figure that reflects company profitability on the income statement. The bottom line is the profit after all expenses and taxes have been paid.

Brand: A design, mark, symbol or other device that distinguishes one line or type of goods from those of a competitor.

Brand name: A term, symbol, design or combination thereof that identifies and differentiates a seller’s products or service.

Break-even: The point of business activity when total revenue equals total expenses. Above the break-even point, the business is making a profit. Below the break-even point, the business is incurring a loss.

Budget: An estimate of the income and expenditures for a future period of time, usually one year.

Business venture: Taking financial risks in a commercial enterprise.

C

Capital: Money available to invest or the total of accumulated assets available for production.

Capital account: the sum of a company’s capital at a particular time

Capital allowance: the tax advantage that a company is granted for money that it spends on fixed assets.

Capital appreciation: the increase in a company’s or individual’s wealth.

Capital asset: an asset that is difficult to sell quickly. for example, real estate.

Capital budget: a budget for the use of a company’s money.

Capital controls: regulations placed by a government on the amount of capital residents may hold.

Capital equipment:Equipment that you use to manufacture a product, provide a service or use to sell, store and deliver merchandise. Such equipment will not be sold in the normal course of business, but will be used and worn out or consumed in the course of business.

Capital gains (and losses): The financial gain made upon the disposal of an asset. The gain is the difference between the cost of its acquisition and net proceeds upon its sale.

Capital goods:stocks of physical or financial assets that are capable of generating income

Capital inflow: the amount of capital that flows into an economy from services rendered abroad.

Capitalism: an economic and social system in which individuals can maximize profits because they own the means of production.

Capitalist: an investor of capital in a business.

Capitalization: the amount of money invested in a company or the worth of the bonds and stocks of a company.

Cash: Money in hand or readily available

Cash discount: A deduction that is given for prompt payment of a bill.

Cash flow: The actual movement of cash within a business; the analysis of how much cash is needed and when that money is required by a business within a period of time.

Cash receipts: The money received by a business from customers.

Centralization: the gathering together, at a corporate headquarters, of specialist functions such as finance, personnel and information technology. Centralization is usually undertaken in order to effect economies of scale and to standardize operating procedures throughout the organization. Centralized management can become cumbersome and inefficient and may produce communication problems. Some organizations have shifted toward decentralization to try to avoid this.

Certificate: A document representing partial ownership of a company that states the number of shares that the document is worth and the names of the company and the owner of the shares.

Certified Public Accountant: An accountant to whom a state has given a certificate showing that he has met prescribed requirements designed to insure competence on the part of the public practitioner in accounting and that he is permitted to use the designation Certified Public Accountant, commonly abbreviated as CPA.

Chamber of Commerce: An organization of business people designed to advance the interests of its members. There are three levels: national, state and local.

Chief Executive: the person with overall responsibility for ensuring that the daily operations of an organization run efficiently and for carrying out strategic plans. The chief executive of an organization normally sits on the board of directors. In a limited company, the chief executive is usually known as a managing director.

Chief Executive Officer: the highest ranking executive officer within a company or corporation, who has responsibility for over-all management of its day-to-day affairs under the supervision of the board of directors. Abbr. CEO

Chief financial officer: the officer of the organization responsible for handling finds, signing checks, the keeping of financial records, and financial planning of the company.

Choice: A decision to purchase that is based on an evaluation of alternatives.

Clicks and brick: a business strategy that involves combining the traditional retail outlets with online commerce.

Close corporation: a public corporation in which all of the voting stock is held by a few shareholders, for example, management or family members. Although it is a public company, shares would not normally be available for trading because of a lack of liquidity.

Close-end credit: a loan, plus any interest and finance charges, that is to be repaid in full by a specified future date. Loans that have real estate or motor vehicles as collateral are usually closed-end

Collateral: property or goods used as security against a loan and forfeited to the lender if the borrower defaults.

Co-signers: Joint signers of a loan agreement who pledge to meet the obligations of a business in case of default.

Commercial paper: uncollateralized loans obtained by companies, usually on a short-term basis.

Commission: A percentage of the principal or of the income that an agent receives as compensation for services.

Contract: An agreement regarding mutual responsibilities between two or more parties

Controllable expenses: Those expenses that can be controlled or restrained by the business person.

Corporation: A voluntary organization of persons, either actual individuals or legal entities, legally bound together to form a business enterprise; an artificial legal entity created by government grant and treated by law as an individual entity.

Cost of goods sold: The direct cost to the business owner of those items which will be sold to customers.

Credit: Another word for debt. Credit is given to customers when they are allowed to make a purchase with the promise to pay later. A bank gives credit when it lends money.

Credit line: The maximum amount of credit or money a financial institution or trade firm will extend to a customer.

Current assets: Valuable resources or property owned by a company that will be turned into cash within one year or used up in the operations of the company within one year. Generally includes cash, accounts receivable, inventory and prepaid expenses.

Current liabilities: Amounts owned that will ordinarily be paid by a company within one year. Generally includes accounts payable, current portion of long-term debt, interest and dividends payable.

D

Debt: That which is owed. Debt refers to borrowed funds and is generally secured by collateral or a co-signer

Debt capital: The part of the investment capital that must be borrowed. Default: The failure to pay a debt or meet an obligation.

Deficit: The excess of liabilities over assets; a negative net worth.

Deficit financing: The borrowing of money because expenditures will exceed receipts.

Deficit spending: government spending financed by borrowing rather than taxation.

Deflation: a reduction in the general level of prices sustained over several months, usually accompanied by declining employment and output.

Depreciation: A decrease in value through age, wear or deterioration. Depreciation is a normal expense of doing business that must be taken into account. There are laws and regulations governing the manner and time periods that may be used for depreciation.

Desktop publishing: Commonly used term for computer-generated printed materials such as newsletters and brochures.

Devaluation: a reduction in the official fixed rate at which one currency exchanges for another under a fixed-rate regime, usually to correct a balance of payments deficit.

Development capital: finance for the expansion of an established company.

Differentiated marketing: Selecting and developing a number of offerings to meet the needs of a number of specific market segments.

Direct cost: Ma variable cost directly attributable to production. Items that are classed as direct cost include materials used, labor deployed, and marketing budget, and amounts spent will vary with output.

Direct mail: Marketing goods or services directly to the consumer through the mall. Direct mail is one tool that can be used as part of a marketing strategy. The use of direct mail is often administered by third-party companies that own databases containing not only names and addresses, but also social, economic, and lifestyle information. It is sometimes seen as an invasion of personal privacy, and there is some public resentment of this form of advertising. This is particularly true of e-mailed direct mail, known derogatively as SPAM.

Direct selling: The process whereby the producer sells to the user, ultimate consumer or retailer without intervening middlemen such as wholesalers, retailers, or brokers. Direct selling offers many advantages to the customer, including lower prices and shopping from home. Potential disadvantages include the lack of after-sales service, an inability to inspect products prior to purchase, lack of specialist advice, and difficulties in returning or exchanging goods.

Dirty price: the price of a debt instrument that includes the amount of accrued interest that has not yet been paid.

Discount: A deduction from the stated or list price of a product or service in relation to the standard price. A discount is a selling technique to encourage customers to buy and is offered for a variety of reasons: for buying in quantity or for repeat buying; as a special offer to move a slow-moving line or for paying by cash, etc.

Distribution channel: All of the individuals and organizations involved in the process of moving products from producer to consumer. The route a product follows as it moves from the original grower, producer or importer to the ultimate consumer.

Distributor: Middleman, wholesaler, agent or company distributing goods to dealers or companies.

Downsize: Term currently used to indicate employee reassignment, layoffs and restructuring in order to make a business more competitive, efficient, and/or cost-effective.

E

earnings: a sum of money gained from employment, usually quoted before tax, including extra reward such as fringe benefits, allowances, or incentives. In business, income or profit from a business, quoted gross or net of tax, which may be retained and distributed in part to the shareholders.

e-business: the conduct of business on the Internet, including the electronic purchasing and selling of goods and services, servicing customers, and communications with business partners.

e-commerce: the exchange of goods, information products, or services via an electronic medium such as the Internet.

Enterprise: A venture characterized by innovation, creativity, dynamism, and risk. An enterprise can consist of one project, or may refer to an entire organization.

Entrepreneur: An innovator of business enterprise who recognizes opportunities to introduce a new product, a new process or an improved organization, and who raises the necessary money, assembles the factors for production and organizes an operation to exploit the opportunity.

equal opportunities: the granting of equal rights. privileges, and status regardless of gender, age, race, religion, disability, or sexual orientation. Equality in employment is regulated by law in most Western countries.

equipment: Physical property of a more or less permanent nature ordinarily useful in carrying on operations, other than land, buildings or improvements to either of them. Examples are machinery, tools, tracks, cars, ships, furniture and furnishings.

equity: A financial investment in a business. An equity investment carries with it a share of ownership of the business, a stake in the profits and a say in how it is managed. Equity is calculated by subtracting the liabilities of the business from the assets of the business.

equity capital: Money furnished by owners of the business.

ergonomics: the study of workplace design and the physical and psychological impact it has on workers. Ergonomics is about the fit between people, their work activities, equipment, work systems, and environment to ensure that workplaces are safe, comfortable, efficient, and that productivity is not compromised.

Euro: the currency of 12 member nations of the European Union. The Euro was introduced in 1999, when the first 11 countries to adopt it joined together in an Economic and Monetary Union and fixed their currencies’ exchange rate to the Euro. Notes and coins were brought into general circulation in January 2002, although banks and other financial institutions had before that time carried out transactions in Euros.

exchange: The process by which two or more parties give something of value to one another to satisfy needs and wants

exchange controls: The regulations by which a country’s banking system controls its residents’ or resident companies’ dealings in foreign currencies and gold.

exchange rate: The rate at which one country’s currency can be exchanged for that of another.

excise duty: a tax on goods such as alcohol or tobacco produced and sold within a particular country.

expense account: amount of money that an employee or group of employees can draw on to reclaim personal expenses incurred in carrying out activities for an organization.

Expenses: personal costs incurred by an employee in carrying out activities for an organization that are reimbursed by the employer.

Export agent: an intermediary who acts on behalf of a company to open up or develop a market in a foreign country. Export agents are often paid a commission on all sales and may have exclusive rights in a particular geographic area.

Exporting: the process of selling goods to other countries.

F

Facsimile machine (FAX): Machine capable of transmitting written input via telephone lines.

Factor: a variable investigated in a statistical study.

Feasibility study: an investigation into a proposed plan or project to determine whether and how it can be successfully and profitably carried out.

Federal funds: an deposits held in reserve by the Federal Reserve System.

Feedback: the communication of responses and reactions to proposals and changes or to the findings of performance appraisals with the aim of enabling improvements to be made.

FIFO: FIRST IN FIRST OUT, a method of inventory control where the stock of a given product first placed in store is used before more recently produced or acquired goods or materials.

Finance: the money needed by an individual or company to pay for something, for example, a project or stocks.

Financial statements: Documents that show your financial situation.

Fiscal: relating to financial matters, especially in respect to government collection, use. and regulation of money through taxation.

Fixed asset:a long term asset of a business such as a machine or building that will not usually be traded.

Fixed expenses: Those costs which don’t vary from one period to the next. Generally, these expenses are not affected by the volume of business.

Float: The period between the presentation of a check as payment and the actual payment to the payee.

Floating rate: an interest rate that is not fixed and which changes according to fluctuations in the market

Floor: a lower limit on an interest rate, price, or the value of an asset.

Flow chart: a graphic representation of the stages in a process or system or the steps required to solve a problem.

Forecast: a prediction of the value of a variable in a statistical study

Forward pricing: the establishment of the price of a share in a mutual fund based on the next asset valuation.

Forward rate: an estimate of what an interest rate will be at a specified future time.

Franchise: an agreement enabling a third party to sell or provide products or services owned by a manufacturer or supplier. The franchise is regulated by a franchise contract, or franchise agreement, that specifies the terms and conditions of the franchise.

Franchise chain: a number of retail outlets operating the same franchise. A franchise chain may vary in size from a few to many thousands of outlets and in coverage from a small local area to worldwide.

Fraud: the use of dishonesty, deception. or false representation in order to gain a material advantage or to injure the interest of others.

Freebie: a product or service that is given away, often as a business promotion.

Free enterprise: the trade carried on in a free-market economy, where resources are allocated on the basis of supply and demand.

Free market: a market in which supply and demand are unregulated except by the country’s competition policy, and rights in physical and intellectual property are upheld.

Fulfillment: the process of responding to customer inquiries, orders, or sales promotion offers.

Future: a contract to deliver a commodity at a future date.

Futures market: a market for buying and selling securities, commodities, or currencies that tend to fluctuate in price over a period of time. The market’s aim is to reduce the risk of uncertainty about future prices.

Fundraising: Events staged to raise revenue.

G

gap analysis: a marketing technique used to identify gaps in market or product coverage. In gap analysis, consumer information or requirements are tabulated and matched to product categories in order to identify product or service opportunities or gaps in product planning.

gateway: E-Commerce: a point where two or more computer networks meet and can exchange data.

GDP: Gross domestic product, the total flow of services and goods produced by an economy over a quarter or a year, measured by the aggregate value of services and goods at market prices.

Globalization: the process of tailoring products or services to different local markets around the world.

GNP: Gross National Product, GDP plus domestic resident’s income from investment abroad less income earned in the domestic market accruing to noncitizens abroad.

Gross profit: The difference between the selling price and the cost of an item. Gross profit is calculated by subtracting cost of goods sold from net sales.

Growth capital: funding that allows a company to accelerate its growth. For new startup companies, growth capital is the second stage of funding after seed money.

Growth rate: the rate of an economy’s growth as measured by its technical progress, the growth of its labor, and the increase in its capital stock. .

Guarantee: A pledge by a third party to repay a loan in the event that the borrower defaults.

Guarantor: a person or organization that guarantees repayment of a loan if the borrower defaults or is unable to pay.

Guerilla marketing: A marketing technique, the aim of which is to damage the market share of competitors.

H

Hard sell: a heavily persuasive and highly pressured approach used to sell a product or service.

Hedge fund: a mutual fund that takes considerable risks, including heavy investment in unconventional instruments, in the hope of generating great profits.

High end: relating to the most expensive, most advanced, or most powerful in a range of things, for example, computers.

High-pressure: a selling technique in which the sales representative attempts to persuade a buyer very forcefully and persistently.

Holding company: a parent organization that owns and controls other companies./p>

Home page: The “table of contents” to a Web site, detailing what pages are on a particular site. The first page one sees when accessing a Web site.

Horizontal integration: The merging of functions or organizations that operate on a similar level. Horizontal integration involves the union of companies producing the same kinds of goods or operating at the same stage of the supply chain.

Hyperinflation: very rapid growth in the rate of inflation so that money loses value and physical goods replace currency as a medium of exchange.

I
IMF: International Monetary Fund, the organization that industrialized nations have established to reduce trade barriers and stabilize currencies, especially those of less industrialized nations.

Impaired capital: a company’s capital that is worth less than the par value of its stock.

Import: a product or service brought into another country from its country of origin either for sale or for use in manufacturing.

Incentive program: an award or reward scheme designed to improve sales force or retail performance.

Income redistribution: a government policy that seeks to restrain increases in wages or prices by regulating the permitted level of increase.

Income statement: A financial document that shows how much money (revenue) came in and how much money (expense) was paid out.

Income tax: a tax levied directly on the income of a person or a company and paid to the local, state, or federal government.

Income statement: A financial document that shows how much money (revenue) came in and how much money (expense) was paid out.

Indirect channel: the selling and distribution of products to customers through intermediaries such as wholesalers, distributors, agents, dealers, or retailers.

Indirect cost: a fixed or overhead cost that cannot be attributed directly to the production of a particular item and is incurred even when there is no output.

Inflation: a sustained increase in a country’s general level of prices that devalues its currency, often caused by excess demand in the economy.

Infomercial: a television or cinema commercial that includes helpful information about a product as well as advertising content.

Initial public offering: the first instance of making particular shares available for sale to the public.

Insolvency: the inability to pay debts when they become due. Insolvency will apply even if total assets exceed total liabilities, if those assets cannot be readily converted into cash to meet debts as they mature. Even then, insolvency may not necessarily mean business failure. Bankruptcy may be avoided through debt rescheduling or turnaround management.

Income statement: A financial document that shows how much money (revenue) came in and how much money (expense) was paid out.

Insurance: an arrangement in which individuals or companies pay another company to guarantee them compensation if they suffer loss resulting from risks such as fire, theft, or accidental damage.

Intellectual property: the ownership of rights to ideas, designs, and inventions, including copyrights, patents, and trademarks. Intellectual property is protected by law in most countries, and the World Intellectual Property Organization is responsible for harmonizing the law across different countries and promoting protection of intellectual property rights

Interest: the rate that a lender charges for the use of money that is a loan.

Interest rate: the amount of interest charged for borrowing a particular sum of money over a specified period of time.

Income statement: A financial document that shows how much money (revenue) came in and how much money (expense) was paid out.

Internet: The vast collection in inter-connected networks that provide electronic mail and access to the World Wide Web.

Inventory: A list of assets being held for sale, The stock of finished goods, raw materials, and work in progress held by a company.

Invest: To lay out money for any purpose from which a profit is expected.

Investment: The spending money on stocks, shares, and other securities, or on assets such as plant and machinery.

Invisible exports: the profits, dividends, interest, and royalties received from selling a country’s services abroad.

Invoice: a document that a supplier sends to a customer detailing the cost of products or services supplied and requesting payment.

J

joint account: an account, for example, one held at a bank or by a broker, that two or more people own in common and have access to.

joint ownership: ownership by more than one party, each with equal rights in the item owned. Joint ownership is often applied to property or other assets.

junk bond: a bond with high return and high risk.

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